A-Z Bash Command Line for Linux

A-Z Bash Command Line for Linux

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Bash (Bourne Again SHell) is a Unix shell and command language written by Brian Fox released in 1989. Bash command processor that typically runs in a text window, where the user types commands that cause actions. Bash can also read commands from a file, called a script. It has been distributed widely as the shell for the GNU operating system and as a default shell on Linux and OS X. Also recently Microsoft announced during the 2016 Build Conference that Windows 10 has added a Linux subsystem that fully supports Bash and other Ubuntu binaries running natively in Windows.

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Features of Bash

Like the other GNU projects, the bash initiative was started to preserve, protect and promote the freedom to use, study, copy, modify and redistribute software. It is generally known that such conditions stimulate creativity. This was also the case with the bash program, which has a lot of extra features that other shells can’t offer.

Bash provides the following features:

  • Input/output redirection
  • Wildcard characters (metacharacters) for filename abbreviation
  • Shell variables for customizing your environment
  • Powerful programming capabilities
  • Command-line editing (using vi- or Emacs-style editing commands)
  • Access to previous commands (command history)
  • Integer arithmetic
  • Arithmetic expressions
  • Command name abbreviation (aliasing)
  • Job control
  • Integrated programming features
  • Control structures
  • Directory stacking (using pushd and popd)
  • Brace/tilde expansion
  • Key bindings

In this article we are going to list A-Z Bash command line for Linux. I think the below bash command line table will be helpful in your Linux journey.

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A-Z Bash Command Line


Bash Command Line Function
 alias  Create an alias
 apropos  Search Help manual pages (man -k)
 apt-get  Search for and install software packages (Debian/Ubuntu)
 aptitude  Search for and install software packages (Debian/Ubuntu)
 aspell  Spell Checker
 awk  Find and Replace text, database sort/validate/index
 basename  Strip directory and suffix from filenames
 bash  GNU Bourne-Again SHell
 bc  Arbitrary precision calculator language
 bg  Send to background
 break  Exit from a loop
 builtin  Run a shell builtin
 bzip2  Compress or decompress named file(s)
 cal  Display a calendar
 case  Conditionally perform a command
 cat  Concatenate and print (display) the content of files
 cd  Change Directory
 cfdisk  Partition table manipulator for Linux
 chgrp  Change group ownership
 chmod  Change access permissions
 chown  Change file owner and group
 chroot  Run a command with a different root directory
 chkconfig  System services (runlevel)
 cksum  Print CRC checksum and byte counts
 clear  Clear terminal screen
 cmp  Compare two files
 comm  Compare two sorted files line by line
 command  Run a command – ignoring shell functions
 continue  Resume the next iteration of a loop
 cp  Copy one or more files to another location
 cron  Daemon to execute scheduled commands
 crontab  Schedule a command to run at a later time
 csplit  Split a file into context-determined pieces
 curl  Transfer data from or to a server
 cut  Divide a file into several parts
 date  Display or change the date & time
 dc  Desk Calculator
 dd  Convert and copy a file, write disk headers, boot records
 ddrescue  Data recovery tool
 declare  Declare variables and give them attributes
 df  Display free disk space
 diff  Display the differences between two files
 diff3  Show differences among three files
 dig  DNS lookup
 dir  Briefly list directory contents
 dircolors  Colour setup for `ls’
 dirname  Convert a full pathname to just a path
 dirs  Display list of remembered directories
 dmesg  Print kernel & driver messages
 du  Estimate file space usage
 echo  Display message on screen
 egrep  Search file(s) for lines that match an extended expression
 eject  Eject removable media
 enable  Enable and disable builtin shell commands
 env  Environment variables
 ethtool  Ethernet card settings
 eval  Evaluate several commands/arguments
 exec  Execute a command
 exit  Exit the shell
 expect  Automate arbitrary applications accessed over a terminal
 expand  Convert tabs to spaces
 export  Set an environment variable
 expr  Evaluate expressions
 false  Do nothing, unsuccessfully
 fdformat  Low-level format a floppy disk
 fdisk  Partition table manipulator for Linux
 fg  Send job to foreground
 fgrep  Search file(s) for lines that match a fixed string
 file  Determine file type
 find  Search for files that meet a desired criteria
 fmt  Reformat paragraph text
 fold  Wrap text to fit a specified width
 for  Expand words, and execute commands
 format  Format disks or tapes
 free  Display memory usage
 fsck  File system consistency check and repair
 ftp  File Transfer Protocol
 function  Define Function Macros
 fuser  Identify/kill the process that is accessing a file
 gawk  Find and Replace text within file(s)
 getopts  Parse positional parameters
 grep  Search file(s) for lines that match a given pattern
 groupadd  Add a user security group
 groupdel  Delete a group
 groupmod  Modify a group
 groups  Print group names a user is in
 gzip  Compress or decompress named file(s)
 hash  Remember the full pathname of a name argument
 head  Output the first part of file(s)
 help  Display help for a built-in command
 history  Command History
 hostname  Print or set system name
 htop  Interactive process viewer
 iconv  Convert the character set of a file
 id  Print user and group id’s
 if  Conditionally perform a command
 ifconfig  Configure a network interface
 ifdown  Stop a network interface
 ifup  Start a network interface up
 import  Capture an X server screen and save the image to file
install  Copy files and set attributes
 ip  Routing, devices and tunnels
 jobs  List active jobs
 join  Join lines on a common field
 kill  Kill a process by specifying its PID
 killall  Kill processes by name
 less  Display output one screen at a time
 let  Perform arithmetic on shell variables
 link  Create a link to a file
 ln  Create a symbolic link to a file
 local  Create variables
 locate  Find files
 logname  Print current login name
 logout  Exit a login shell
 look  Display lines beginning with a given string
 lpc  Line printer control program
 lpr  Off line print
 lprint  Print a file
 lprintd  Abort a print job
 lprintq  List the print queue
 lprm  Remove jobs from the print queue
 ls  List information about file(s)
 lsof  List open files
 make Recompile a group of programs
 man Help manual
 mkdir Create new folder(s)
 mkfifo Make FIFOs (named pipes)
 mkisofs Create an hybrid ISO9660/JOLIET/HFS filesystem
 mknod Make block or character special files
 more Display output one screen at a time
 most Browse or page through a text file
 mount Mount a file system
 mtools Manipulate MS-DOS files
 mtr Network diagnostics (traceroute/ping)
 mv Move or rename files or directories
 mmv Mass Move and rename (files)
 nc Netcat, read and write data across networks
 netstat Networking information
 nice Set the priority of a command or job
 nl Number lines and write files
 nohup Run a command immune to hangups
 notify-send Send desktop notifications
 nslookup Query Internet name servers interactively
 open Open a file in its default application
 op Operator access
passwd Modify a user password
paste Merge lines of files
pathchk Check file name portability
ping Test a network connection
pkill Kill processes by a full or partial name
popd Restore the previous value of the current directory
pr Prepare files for printing
printcap Printer capability database
printenv Print environment variables
printf Format and print data
ps Process status
pushd Save and then change the current director
pv Monitor the progress of data through a pipe
pwd Print Working Directory
quota Display disk usage and limits
quotacheck Scan a file system for disk usag
ram ram disk device
rar Archive files with compression
rcp Copy files between two machines
read Read a line from standard input
readarray Read from stdin into an array variable
readonly Mark variables/functions as readonly
reboot Reboot the system
rename Rename files
renice Alter priority of running processes
return Exit a shell function
rev Reverse lines of a file
rm Remove files
rmdir Remove folder(s)
rsync Remote file copy (Synchronize file trees)
screen Multiplex terminal, run remote shells via ssh
scp Secure copy (remote file copy)
sdiff Merge two files interactively
sed Stream Editor
select Accept keyboard input
seq Print numeric sequences
set Manipulate shell variables and functions
sftp Secure File Transfer Program
shift Shift positional parameters
shopt Shell Options
shutdown Shutdown or restart linux
sleep Delay for a specified time
slocate Find files
sort Sort text files
source Run commands from a file ‘.’
split Split a file into fixed-size pieces
ssh Secure Shell client (remote login program)
stat Display file or file system status
strace Trace system calls and signals
su Substitute user identity
sudo Execute a command as another user
sum Print a checksum for a file
suspend Suspend execution of this shell
sync Synchronize data on disk with memory
tail Output the last part of file
tar Store, list or extract files in an archive
tee Redirect output to multiple files
test Evaluate a conditional expression
time Measure Program running time
timeout Run a command with a time limit
times User and system times
touch Change file timestamps
top List processes running on the system
tput Set terminal-dependent capabilities, color, position
traceroute Trace Route to Host
trap Run a command when a signal is set(bourne)
tr Translate, squeeze, and/or delete characters
true Do nothing, successfully
tsort Topological sort
tty Print filename of terminal on stdin
type Describe a command
ulimit Limit user resources
umask Users file creation mask
umount Unmount a device
unalias Remove an alias
uname Print system information
unexpand Convert spaces to tabs
uniq Uniquify files
units Convert units from one scale to another
unrar Extract files from a rar archive
unset Remove variable or function names
unshar Unpack shell archive scripts
until Execute commands (until error)
uptime Show uptime
useradd Create new user account
userdel Delete a user account
usermod Modify user account
users List users currently logged in
uuencode Encode a binary file
uudecode Decode a file created by uuencode
v Verbosely list directory contents (`ls -l -b’)
vdir Verbosely list directory contents (`ls -l -b’)
vi Text Editor
vmstat Report virtual memory statistics
wait Wait for a process to complete
watch Execute/display a program periodically
wc Print byte, word, and line counts
whereis Search the user’s $path, man pages and source files for a program
which Search the user’s $path for a program file
while Execute commands
who Print all usernames currently logged in
whoami Print the current user id and name (`id -un’)
wget Retrieve web pages or files via HTTP, HTTPS or FTP
write Send a message to another user
xargs Execute utility, passing constructed argument list(s)
xdg-open Open a file or URL in the user’s preferred application
xz Compress or decompress .xz and .lzma files
yes Print a string until interrupted
zip Package and compress (archive) files
Special Characters
. Run a command script in the current shell
!! Run the last command again
### Comment / Remark


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