7 Features of Advanced Manual Software Testing

Testing is an essential element in the software development process and it often requires time and effort. As a result, you must improve the testing process to produce high-quality products.

The seven software principles can assist you in doing so. These software testing principles describe how testing engineers or software testers should create error-free, clear, and maintainable code. The seven software testing principles, as defined by the ISTQB (International Software Testing Qualifications Board), are as follows:

Testing shows the presence of defects

Testing focuses on the presence of defects rather than the absence of defects. i.e,Software testing services reduce the likelihood of undiscovered defects remaining in the software, but finding no flaws is not proof of correctness. But what if you work extra hard, take all precautions, and make your software product bug-free 99% of the time? And the software needs to meet the client’s needs and requirements. This brings us to the following characteristic: the absence of error.

Absence of errors fallacy

If your software is 99% error-free but does not meet the needs of your users, it still needs to be made usable. That is why it is essential to run tests that are relevant to the system’s requirements. Software testing is more than just looking for bugs; it is also about ensuring that the software meets the needs and conditions of the user.

As a result, you should also run user tests on your software. During the usability testing phase, you can test against early prototypes to get feedback from users on whether the software is usable. Even if your software has few bugs, it needs to be ready to ship and meet your customers’ requirements and expectations.

Early testing

Involving testing early is also a core characteristic, which observes testing as an ongoing activity rather than a phase (which would be at the end of a traditional waterfall approach) since it allows quick and timely continuous feedback loops. When a team encounters stumbling blocks or impediments, early feedback is one of the most effective ways to overcome them, and testers are essential for this. Consider the tester to be an “information provider,” which is an important role to play. Testing early can help you prevent defects in the very first place.

Exhaustive testing is impossible.

It is only possible to test some things – all possible combinations of inputs and preconditions – and one could argue that trying to do so is a waste of time and money. However, one of the abilities of adequate testing is evaluating risks and planning your tests around them; this allows you to cover a large area while ensuring you test the most critical functions. Without trying every single line of code, your test coverage can remain excellent and provide the necessary confidence in your software with careful planning and assessment.

Defect clustering

Defect Clustering states that most of the defects detected are contained in a few modules. This characteristic applies the Pareto Principle to software testing: nearly 80% of the problems are found in 20% of the modules. Such risky modules can be identified through good experience. However, this approach has its own set of issues. If the same tests are run repeatedly, the same test cases will eventually stop finding new bugs.

Pesticide paradox

This is based on the saying, – if pesticides are used repeatedly on crops, insects will develop immunity, rendering the pesticide ineffective. Similarly, if the same tests are run continuously, while they may confirm that the software is working, they will eventually fail to find new issues in the code. To help prevent the pesticide paradox from occurring, keep reviewing your tests and modifying or adding to your scenarios – using varying testing techniques, methods, and approaches in parallel can work.

Testing is context-dependent

The context is everything in testing. The methods and types of testing used can be completely different depending on the context of the software or system – for example, an e-commerce website may need additional testing and approaches than an API application or a database reporting application. What you are testing will always have an impact on your policy.


By using all the seven principles mentioned above in your testing, you can become more focused and efficient while improving your testing strategy’s overall quality. When you combine all these points, you can achieve maximum efficiency by effectively and economically utilizing your time and efforts.

Furthermore, when you apply one characteristic, the other principles may organically fall into place. For example, testing early in the software development lifecycle can mitigate the absence-of-errors fallacy since testing at the requirements level can help ensure that the software meets the requirements of your users.

Nethra Gupta
Nethra Gupta
Nethra Gupta, with a Master’s in Tech and Digital Media, she's an expert in the latest tech trends and social media. Recognized in tech forums Nethra is known for her reliable insights. When offline, she loves digital art and gaming.


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