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A-Z List Of Windows CMD Commands — Also Included CMD Commands PDF

A-Z List Of Windows CMD Commands -Also Included CMD Commands PDF

Here is the list of all Windows CMD commands sorted alphabetically along with exclusive CMD commands pdf file for future reference for both pro and newbies.

Command Prompt and CMD Commands are unknown territories for most of the Windows users, they only know it as a black screen for troubleshooting the system with some fancy commands.

If you are Linux user then you would know how commands play an important role in different system operations. Unlike Linux, Windows is a user-friendly operating system and we don’t require to play with CMD commands at all to do our task. In most cases, people open Command Prompt only when they need to repair a corrupted disk, hide certain drives, to create a hacking-like environment etc.

What is Command Prompt and CMD Commands?

Command Prompt, also known as cmd.exe or cmd — a command line interpreter application on Windows NT family operating systems. And CMD Commands are the specific set of instructions given to Command Prompt to perform some kind of task or function on your Windows PC. Most of the Windows CMD Commands are used to automate tasks via scripts and batch files, perform advanced administrative functions, and troubleshoot and solve certain kinds of Windows issues.

So here is the A-Z list of Windows CMD commands to perform desired tasks which you normally do by using the GUI. Also, you can use these commands to do some exciting hacks through Windows — which we will list soon.

How To Access Command Prompt ?

Before we start first we will see how to open Command Prompt program.

Three ways you can run Command Prompt program :

  1. Simply by typing cmd in the Start Menu search bar.
  2. If you are using Windows 8,then you can access Command Prompt via the Command Prompt shortcut located in the Start Menu or on the Apps screen.
  3. Or you can press CTRL+R to open the RUN utility, type cmd, and press Enter.
Many commands can only be executed if Command Prompt is being run as an administrator. To open an Elevated Command Prompt — Locate the Command Prompt shortcut, then right-click on it to bring up its pop-up menu of options and from the pop-up menu, choose Run as administrator. Accept any User Account Control messages or warnings.

A-Z Windows CMD Commands

CMD Commands Function
 addusers  Used to add and list users in a CSV file
 admodcmd  Used for bulk modifying contents in an active directory
 arp  Address Resolution Protocol is used to map IP address to the hardware address
 assoc  Used to change associations for file extensions
 associat  One step file association
 at  Run a command at a specific time
 atmadm  Display connection info of the ATM adapter
 attrib  Used to change file attributes
 bcdboot  Used to create and repair a system partition
 bcdedit  Used to manage boot configuration data
 bitsadmin  Used to manage the Background Intelligent Transfer Service
 bootcfg  Used to edit boot configuration in Windows
 break  Enable/Disable break capability (CTRL+C) in CMD
 cacls  Used to change permissions of files
 call  Used one batch program to call another
 certreq  Used to request a certificate from a certification authority
 certutil  Manage Certification Authority files and services
 cd  Used to change folder (directory) or go to a specific one
 change  Used to change terminal services
 chcp  Displays the number of active console code page
 chdir  Same as cd command
 chkdsk  Used to check and repair issues in the disk
 chkntfs  Used to check the NTFS file system
 choice  Accept user input (via keyboard) to a batch file
 cipher  Used to encrypt/decrypt files and folder
 cleanmgr  Used clean temp files and recycle bin automatically
 clip  Copy result of any command (stdin) to Windows clipboard
 cls  Clear CMD screen
 cmd  Used to start a new CMD shell
 cmdkey  Used to manage stored usernames and passwords
 cmstp  Used to install or remove a connection manager service profile
 color  Change the color of the CMD shell using options
 comp  Compare contents of two files or two sets of files
 compact  Compress files and folders on an NTFS partition
 compress  Compress one or more files
 convert  Convert a FAT partition to NTFS
 copy  Copy one or more files to another location
 coreinfo  Show the mapping between logical and physical processors
 cprofile Cleans specified profiles of wasted space and disabled user-specific file associations
 cscmd  Configure offline files on a client computer
 csvde  Import or Export the data of an active directory
 date  Used to display the date or change it
 defrag  Used to defragment system hard drive
 del  Used to delete a file(s)
 delprof  Used to delete user profile(s)
 deltree  Used to delete a folder and its sub-folders
 devcon  Access the command line device manager utility
 dir  Used to display files and folders list
 dirquota  Manage File Server Resource Manager quotas
 diruse  Used to display disk usage
 diskcomp  Compare contents of two floppy disks
 diskcopy  Copy data of one floppy disk to another
 diskpart  Make changes to partitions of storage, both internal and connected
 diskshadow  Access the Disk Shadow Copy Service
 diskuse  View used space in folder(s)
 doskey  Used to edit command line, recall commands, and create macros
 driverquery  Display a list of installed device drivers
 dsacls  View and edit access control entries for objects in active directory
 dsadd  Used to add objects to active directory
 dsget  View objects in active directory
 dsquery  Find objects in an active directory
 dsmod  Used to modify objects in an active directory
 dsmove  Rename or move an active directory object.
 dsrm  Remove objects from an active directory
 dsmgmt  Manage Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services
echo Turn command-echoing feature on/off, display a message on the screen
endlocal End localization environment changes in a batch file
erase Used to delete on or more file(s)
eventcreate Add custom event to Windows event log (Admin rights required)
eventquerry Display list of events and their properties from event logs
eventtriggers Display and configure event triggers on local and remote machines
exit Exit the command line (Quit current batch script)
expand Uncompress one or more .CAB file(s)
explorer Open Windows Explorer
extract Uncompress one or more Windows cabinet file(s)
fc Used to compare two files
find Used to search a specified text string in a file
findstr Used to find string patterns in files
finger Display information about user(s) on a specified remote computer
flattemp Used to enable/disable flat temporary folders
For Run a command in a loop for a file(s) for defined parameter
forfiles Used for batch processing of selected file(s)
format Used to format a disk
freedisk Used to check free space on a disk
fsutil File system utility to manage file and drive properties
ftp Use FTP service to transfer files from one PC to another
ftype Display/ Modify file extension type associations
getmac Used to display the MAC address of your network adapter
goto Used to direct a batch program to a line identified by a label
gpresult Display Group Policy Settings and Resultant Set of Policy for a user
gpupdate Update local and active directory based on group policy settings
graftabl Turn on the ability to display an extended character in graphics mode
help Display a list of commands and see online information for them
hostname Used to display host name of the computer
icacls Used to change permissions of files and folders
iexpress Used to create a self-extracting zip archive
if Used for conditional processing in batch programs
ifmember Display the group(s) an active user belongs to
inuse Replace the files which the OS is currently using (restart required)
ipconfig Display and change Windows IP configuration
ipseccmd Used to configure IP Security policies
ipxroute Display and modify routing table information used by IPX protocol
irftp Used to send files over an infrared link (infrared functionality required)
label Used to change the name of a disk
lodctr Update registry values with latest performance counters
logman Used to manage performance monitor logs
logoff Log a user off
logtime Add the date, time, and a message to a text file
lpq Displays print queue status
lpr Used to send a file to a computer running the Line Printer Daemon service
macfile Manage files server for Mackintosh
makecab Used to create .cab files
mapisend Used to send email from command line
mbsacli Microsoft Baseline Security Analyser
mem Used to show memory usage
md Used to create directories and sub-directories
mkdir Used to create directories and sub-directories
mklink Used to create symbolic link to a directory
mmc Access Microsoft Management Console
mode Configure COM, LPT, CON system devices
more Display one screen of output at time
mountvol Create, list, or delete a volume mount point
move Used to move files from one folder to another
moveuser Move user account to a domain or between machines
msg Used to send a pop-up message to a user
msiexec Install, modify, configure using Windows Installer
msinfo32 Display system information
mstsc Create a remote desktop connection
nbstat Display NetBIOS over TCP/IP information
net Used to manage network resources and services
netdom Network Domain Manager utility
netsh Display or modify network configuration
netstat Display active TCP/IP connections
nlsinfo Used to display locale information
nltest List domain controllers, force remote shutdown, etc
now Display date and time
nslookup Check IP address on a Name Server
ntbackup Backup data to tape using CMD or batch file
ntcmdprompt Runs cmd.exe instead of command.exe in an MS-DOS application
ntdsutil Manage Active Directory Domain Services
ntrights Used to edit user account privileges
ntsd Only for system developers
nvspbind Used to modify network bindings
openfiles Queries or displays open files
pagefileconfig Display and configure Virtual memory settings
path Set PATH environment variable for executable files
pathping Latency and Packet loss info for each node in the network path
pause Used to stop processing of a batch file
pbadmin Starts Phone Book Administrator
pentnt Detect Floating Point Division error in the Pentium chip
perfmon Access performance monitor in CMD
perms Display a user\’s ACL permissions for a file
ping Test network connection to a computer
popd Go to the latest path/folder stored by PUSHD command
portqry Display TCP and UDP port status
powercfg Used to configure power settings and know battery health
print Used to print a text file(s) from CMD
printbrm For backup/recovery/migration of the print queue
prncnfg Used to configure/rename a printing device
prndrvr List/add/delete printer drivers
prnjobs List/pause/resume/cancel print jobs
prnmngr List/add/delete printers, display/set default printer
prnport List/create/delete TCP printer ports, display/change port configuration
prnqctl Clear printer queue, print a test page
procdump Monitor system for CPU spikes, generate a crash report during a spike
prompt Used to change the Prompt in CMD
psexec Run a CMD process on a remote computer
psfile Display remotely opened files, close an open file
psinfo List system information about a local/remote machine
pskill Kill a process(es) using its name or process ID
pslist Display process status and info about active processes
psloggedon See active users on machine
psloglist Display event log records
pspasswd Used to change account password
psping Used to measure network performance
psservice Display and control services on a machine
psshutdown Shutdown/restart/logoff/lock a local or remote machine
pssuspend Used to suspend a process on a local or remote computer
pushd Change current folder and store previous folder for use by POPD
qgrep Search file(s) for a given string pattern
query process or qprocess Display information about processes
rasdial Display Remote Access Service Status
rasphone Manage RAS connections
rcp Copy files to a computer running remote shell service
recover Recover readable data from a defective disk
reg Display/add/change registry keys and values in Windows registry
regedit Import/export/delete settings from a .reg text file
regsvr32 Used to register/unregister a DLL file
regini Used to change registry permissions
relog Export performance counters to other formats like TSV, CSV, SQL
rem Add comments in batch file
ren Used to rename a file(s)
replace Used to replace a file with another file of same name
reset session Used to reset a remote desktop session
rexec Run commands on remote machines running Rexec service
rd Used to delete a folder(s)
rmdir Used to delete a folder(s)
rmtshare Manage file and printer shares local or remote servers
robocopy Used to copy files and folders that have changed
route Display/change the local IP routing table
rsh Run commands on remote servers running RSH service
rsm Manage media resources using Removable storage
runas Run a program as a different user
rundll32 Used to run a DLL program
sc Use Service Controller to manage Windows services
schtasks Schedule command(s) to run at a specific time
secedit Configure system security
set Display/set/remove environment variables in CMD
setlocal Control visibility of environment variables in a batch file
setspn Manage Service Principal Names for an Active Directory service account
setx Set Environment Variables permanently
sfc System File Checker
share List/edit a file share or print on any computer
shellrunas Used to run a command as a different user
shift Change the position of the batch parameters in a batch file
shortcut Create a Windows shortcut
shutdown Shutdown the computer
sleep Put computer to sleep for specified number of seconds
slmgr Software Licensing Management tool for activation and KMS
sort Used to sort and display a redirected or piped input
start Start a program, command, or batch file
strings Find ANSI and UNICODE strings in binary files
subinacl Display/modify ACEs for file and folder permissions
subst Associate a path with a drive letter
sysmon Monitor and log system activity to Windows event log
systeminfo Display detailed configuration information about the computer
takeown Used to take the ownership of a file
taskkill Used to terminate on or more running processes
tasklist Display a list of running apps and services.
tcmsetup Enable/disable TAPI client
telnet Communicate with a remote machine using TELNET protocol
tftp Transfer files to and from a remote machine running TFTP protocol
time Display/change system time
timeout Delay a batch file execution for specified seconds
title Change the text on top of CMD window
touch Change file timestamps
tracerpt Process event trace logs and generate trace analysis report
tracert Trace route to a remote host by sending ICMP request messages
tree Display a folder structure in the form of a graphical tree
tsdiscon Terminate a remote desktop connection
tskill Terminate a running process on a RD Session Host server
tssutdn Shutdown/reboot a terminal server remotely
type Show contents of a text file
typeperf Write performance data to a CMD window or a log file
tzutil Time Zone Utility
unlodctr Remove performance counter names and explain text for a service from the registry
ver Show version number of installed OS
verify Verify whether files are saved correctly on the disk
vol Show disk volume label and serial number
vssadmin Show shadow copy backups, installed shadow copy writers and providers
w32tm Access Windows Time Service Utility
waitfor Used to synchronize events between networked computer(s)
wevtutil Retrieve information about event logs and publishers
where Find and display file(s) in the current directory
whoami Display information about the active user
windiff Compare contents of two files or sets of files
winrm Windows Remote Management
winrs Windows Remote Shell
wmic Windows Management Instrumentation Command
wuauclt Windows Update Agent to download new update files
xcalcs Change ACLs for files and folders
xcopy Copy files or directory trees to another folder
:: Comment

That’s it! If you think we forget to add any other CMD commands in this list, please notify us. Also here is get a copy of list of CMD Commands PDF too.

List of CMD Commands PDF File

Also check out other command lists too :

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Simple Hacks And Best Tools To Limit Memory Usage In Google Chrome

Simple Hacks And Best Tools To Limit Memory Usage In Google Chrome

Nevertheless being the powerful and popular browser of all time, Google Chrome always like to hammer our PC RAM. RAM usage of Chrome is always at the peak level, these effects mostly who have PC with up to 4 GB RAM.

Yes Google knows it too and they are working on to limit memory usage in Chrome in future updates. But what we can do to control Chrome’s memory use.

In this article am going to share some useful tips and tools to limit memory usage in Chrome.

How do I know, how much RAM is Chrome using?

Since Chrome have an exclusive Task Manager, like Windows Task Manager, where you can find how much memory has been utilized by each tab and extension. You can open this Chrome task manager by pressing “Shift + Esc” or by clicking the option menu in top right corner and selecting “Tools > Task Manager” from the drop down menu.

limit memory usage in chromeIn task manger you can find out how much memory has been used by each tab,graphics processor, extensions and plugins.

How to limit memory usage in Chrome ?

Since we didn’t want to shift to other browser and like to control the RAM thirst of Chrome everyone like to know how to tame Chrome’s memory usage. So here are some simple tips and useful extensions that will help you out in this matter.

Tips to control memory usage in Chrome:

Minimum Tabs:

Yes opening more tabs in Chrome is the main reason behind memory leak.Always try to keep minimum number of open tabs in your Chrome browser and don’t forget to close unused tabs. You can alwayd find out which tab is using more RAM and you can end it by pressing “End Process” button in Chrome task manager.

More Extensions:

That’s right more extensions — more RAM in Chrome. Since each extensions have some dedicated functionality — doesn’t want to work on every website we browse, so always disable extensions that are not important for your present browsing mode. For example you have a YouTube video downloader extension whose sole purpose is to download videos from YouTube, so disable this extension when browsing other websites.

And always uninstall buggy extensions.

Reset Chrome’s Browser Settings:

Reset your browser every 1-2 weeks and use it like newly installed one.

Tools or extensions to limit memory usage in Chrome:

1. The Great Suspender — Most famous and used RAM saver Chromeextension which automatically suspends unused tabs to free up system resources.

2. OneTab — Converts all open tabs to a list saving memory in the progress as tabs are closed afterwards. You can open any of them at any time with a click on the extension’s button.

3. Tab Hibernation — Tab Hibernation frees some memory and CPU on your computer by killing all inactive tabs. Your tabs won’t get lost and you can restore them with a single mouse click.

4. TooManyTabs — TooManyTabs offers you a clean interface where you can manage all your open tabs, or use it to quickly switch between tabs. This extension really comes in handy when you are working with ten or more open tabs simultaneously.

5. Tab Outliner — Tab Outliner limits the number of open tabs you need open, slashing your memory usage significantly. And it does this by closing your tabs and saving them exactly where you left off by putting them in a vertical side window, so it’s as if they were never closed, but just waiting for you to come back and open them.

I think you all like these Chrome memory freeing extensions.

Finally I have to say only one thing always try to keep limited number of tabs and disable or uninstall unwanted extensions. And if you think Chrome hogging RAM, then switch to another browser.

Basic Ubuntu commands and Terminal shortcuts every beginner must know

Basic Ubuntu commands and Terminal shortcuts

If you are Ubuntu newbie, then this post about basic Ubuntu commands is going to help you to get familiar with the Terminal emulator.

As we all know, Ubuntu is one of the most customizable Linux distribution available today. In fact, when we heard Linux, the first thing came to our would-be Ubuntu. Almost every Linux enthusiast start with Ubuntu when they enter the Linux world, as it’s one of the chosen Linux distros for beginners.

And this post is for those Ubuntu beginners. Here we are going to list some important basic Ubuntu commands every beginner must know.

I think Ubuntu’s incredible flexibility is due mainly to its powerful shell, which is at the core of all Linux variants. Through the user-friendly “Terminal” interface, you can easily interact with this shell using a wide variety of commands.

Ubuntu uses BASH as its default shell and there are a lot of bash commands — that confuses every Ubuntu beginners. But you don’t have to learn all these bash commands if you want to familiar with Ubuntu Terminal in your early Linux days. Else you only have to understand basic Ubuntu commands which will help you to do some basic operations.

So to do this task easier, here are the most basic starters Ubuntu commands and some Terminal shortcuts, that will help you to execute commands more quickly, to ease up your Linux journey.

Basic Ubuntu Commands for Beginner

1. sudo

sudo (SuperUser DO) Linux command allows you to run programs or other commands with administrative privileges like “Run as administrator” in Windows. This is useful when, for example, you need to modify files in a directory that your user wouldn’t normally have access to.

2. cd

cd (change director”) Linux command also known as chdir used to change the current working directory. You can use full paths to folders or simply the name of a folder within the directory you are currently working. Some common uses are:

  • cd / – Takes you to the root directory.
  • cd .. – Takes you up one directory level.
  • cd – – Takes you to the previous directory.

3. pwd

pwd (print working directory) Ubuntu command displays the full pathname of the current working directory.

4. ls

ls (list) command lists all files and folders in your current working directory. You can also specify paths to other directories if you want to view their contents.

5. cp

cp (copy) Linux command allows you to copy a file. You should specify both the file you want to be copied and the location you want it copied to – for example, cp xyz /home/myfiles would copy the file “xyz” to the directory “/home/myfiles.

6. mv

mv (move) command allows you to move files. You can also rename files by moving them to the directory they are currently in, but under a new name. The usage is the same as cp – for example mv xyz /home/myfiles would move the file “xyz” to the directory “/home/myfiles.

7. rm

rm (remove) command removes the specified file.

  • rmdir (“remove directory”) – Removes an empty directory.
  • rm -r (“remove recursively”) – Removes a directory along with its content.

8. mkdir

mkdir (make directory) command allows you to create a new directory. You can specify where you want the directory created – if you do not do so, it will be created in your current working directory.

9. history

history command displays all of your previous commands up to the history limit.

10. df

df (display filesystem) command displays information about the disk space usage of all mounted filesystems.

11. du

du (directory usage) command displays the size of a directory and all of its subdirectories.

12. free

free – Displays the amount of free space available on the system.

13. uname -a

uname -a – Provides a wide range of basic information about the system.

14. top

top – Displays the processes using the most system resources at any given time. “q” can be used to exit.

15. man

man command displays a “manual page”. Manual pages are usually very detailed, and it’s recommended that you read the man pages for any command you are unfamiliar with. Some uses are :

  • man man – Provides information about the manual itself.
  • man intro – Displays a brief introduction to Linux commands.

16. info

Similar to man, but often provides more detailed or precise information.

17. <command name> -h or <command name> –help

This command is a third alternative to get help. While not as detailed as the info or man pages, this will provide a quick overview of the command and its uses.

Ubuntu Terminal Shortcuts:

To further ease up your skill, these Ubuntu Terminal shortcuts would help.

Ubuntu Terminal Shortcuts Function
Ctrl + A Move cursor to beginning of line
Ctrl + E Move cursor to end of line
Ctrl + U Clears the entire current line
Ctrl + K Clears the command from the cursor right
Ctrl + W Delete the word before the cursor
Ctrl + R Allows you to search your history for commands matching what you have typed
Ctrl + C Kill the current process
Ctrl + Z Suspend the current process by sending the signal SIGSTOP
Ctrl + L Clears the terminal output
Alt + F Move forward one word
Alt + B Move backward one word
Shift + Ctrl + C Copy the highlighted command to the clipboard
Shift + Ctrl + V or Shift + Insert Paste the contents of the clipboard
Up/Down Arrow keys To scroll through your command history, allowing you to quickly execute the same command multiple times
TAB Used to complete the command you are typing. If more than one command is possible, you can press it multiple times to scroll through the possible completions. If a very wide number of commands are possible, it can output a list of all possible completions.

This new American supercomputer is now the world’s most powerful calculating machine

Summit - powerful supercomputer on the planet
Source: ORNL

Which is the powerful supercomputer on the planet? — For last five years, the answer was China’s Sunway TaihuLight. And last Friday the answer just changed — a new player from America take up the position.

Summit — the world’s most powerful and smartest scientific supercomputer — made in the USA — was unveiled by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on Friday.

The new American supercomputer built by IBM and Nvidia holds a peak performance of 200,000 trillion calculations per second or 200 petaflops, where Sunway TaihuLight can run only at 125 petaflops when at peak capacity. Also, Summit is eight times more powerful than Titan — previous US top-ranked supercomputer, housed at ORNL.

According to ORNL, Summit will provide unprecedented computing power for research in energy, advanced materials and artificial intelligence (AI), among other domains, enabling scientific discoveries that were previously impractical or impossible.

In physical appearance, Summit takes up the size of two tennis courts. The beast is equipped with 4,608 computer servers with more than 9,000 22-core IBM Power9 processors and 27,0000 Nvidia Tesla V100 GPUs. For cooling mechanism, Summit uses around 15,000 liters of water per minute and the whole system requires electricity enough to power 8,000 homes.

A team of scientists at ORNL already leveraged the intelligence of this smartest scientific supercomputer to run the world’s first exascale scientific calculation — that’s one billion billion calculations per second (or one exaop). Remarkably Summit ran at 1.88 exaops to to analyze millions of genomes and also it is capable of go up to 3.3 exaops using mixed precision calculations.

According to researchers, by 2021 Summit can deliver a fully capable exascale computing ecosystem for broad scientific use.

5 Best anonymous browsers to protect online privacy in 2018

Best anonymous browsers to protect online privacy

Why should we consider start using anonymous browsers instead of regular ones?

The answer is clear, today, when we are online nothing, is private, in fact, now online privacy is a joke and our private browsing data has been using for business purposes like advertising. We are been tracked by Google, by our ISP, our government and hundreds of data collectors.

Everyone likes to know what we are doing online, which websites are we visiting and use this information against us. The hard truth is — today we can’t be fully anonymous.

But we can reduce the impact to some extent by following some quick measures that will diminish leaked information footprint and (almost) secure our online privacy. In this article, we are going to list a similar measure to protect your browsing data.

The primary safeguarding starts with from the web browser itself, as its the main portal connecting you to the internet. It’s the place where it all starts. So to protect your online privacy, first, you have to replace your web browser with a more secure one — something makes your browsing anonymous.

And below we are listing the best anonymous browsers which you can trust and hide your browsing habits from spying eyes — most of them are open source projects. These secure browsers will prevent somebody watching your internet connection from learning what sites you visit, it stops sites you visit from learning your physical location and lets you access sites which are blocked.

Anonymous browsers to protect online privacy:

1. Tor Browser

Best anonymous browsers to protect online privacy

When it comes to anonymous browsing, none can beat Tor. The privacy browser Tor protects you by sending your internet traffic and communications around a distributed network of relays run by volunteers all around the world. Like instead of directing traffic from A to B, Tor browser actually bounces it multiple times through different locations. By this way, no one could possibly tell where the traffic originated or where it’s going.

In fact, US Navy and many other government organizations use Tor browser to gather intelligence and visit dark web or other websites without leaving any digital footprints or government IP addresses in the site’s log makes Tor one of the most secure web browsers and best open source alternative to Google Chrome.

Actually, Tor built on top of Firefox with a lot of modification to improve security and privacy. This anonymous browser comes with NoScript integration by default.

The only downside of Tor browser is its speed. Because of bouncing of internet traffic to multiple tunnels before getting to the destination makes Tor browser less fast than other anonymous browsers. But it wouldn’t be an issue if you are using a speedy internet connection. However, when it comes to the protection of online privacy — nothing matters.

Available on: Windows, Mac, Linux

2. Epic Privacy Browser

Best anonymous browsers to protect online privacy

Epic browser is a Chromium-based anonymous web browser come with the ability to stops 600+ tracking attempts in an average browsing session. Epic restricts websites from showing ads, fingerprinting, crypto mining, ultrasound signaling and more.

When you’re using Epic with encrypted proxy on, your data is encrypted and hidden from the government, from your ISP, from Google and from hundreds of data collectors. And when you close the Epic browser after internet surfing, it automatically deletes the browsing history, cookies, web cache, databases, web, Flash & Silverlight cookies — literally everything that compromises your privacy.

Available on: Windows, Mac

3. Comodo Dragon / Ice Dragon

Best anonymous browsers to protect online privacy

Comodo created two flavors of anonymous browsers. One named Comodo Dragon — a Chromium-based secure web browser comes with all of Chrome’s features plus the unparalleled level of security and privacy. And the other named Comodo IceDragon — based on Mozilla Firefox which features several security, performance and feature enhancements over the core build.

Both these Comodo privacy web browsers possess top-level security features to anonymize your browsing data from the third party. One of the notable feature available on the free version is the virtualized mode that isolates the browser from the host system. Which can be attained by installing Comodo’s free antivirus software, Comodo Internet Security (CIS).

Available on: Windows, Mac, Linux

4. SRWare Iron

Best anonymous browsers to protect online privacy

SRWare Iron — another one of the best anonymous browsers based on the open-source Chromium project. The secure browser offers the same features as Chrome — but without the critical points that the privacy concern. It primarily aims to eliminate usage tracking and other privacy-compromising functionality that the Google Chrome browser includes.

Available on: Windows, Mac, Linux, Android

5. Brave

Best anonymous browsers to protect online privacy

Brave — fastest anonymous browser to protect your privacy. Brave by default blocks ads and trackers, reduces your chances of being infected by malware, ransomware and spyware.

Available on: Windows, Mac, Linux, Android, iOS

Making anonymous browsers as your primary medium to surf the internet is only the initial step. Soon we will share more privacy protection measures like VPN services, proxies, and even secure operating systems to shield you from online espionage.

Also if we forget to add some other anonymous browsers, please kindly mention them in comments.

How to encrypt Android or iOS devices and stay protected

encrypt Android or iOS devices

Why we should encrypt Android or iOS devices in our hand?

Security of your digital data has now become a concerning issue. Everyone’s Android or iOS devices hold personal photos, private messages, emails and sometimes even sensitive health information. It would be devastating for this data to fall into the wrong hands. There comes the importance of smartphone encryption.

The importance of security and smartphone encryption has been popping up over and over again in our news and social media feeds recently. Apple’s battle with the United States government relating to encryption on its iOS devices has brought the issue of privacy to the forefront.

Why you need to encrypt Android or iOS devices

SO what happens when you encrypt Android or iOS devices?

Encryption stores your phone’s data in an unreadable, seemingly scrambled form. When you enter your PIN, password, or pattern on the lock screen, your phone decrypts the data, making it understandable. If someone doesn’t know the encryption PIN or password, they can’t access your data. So it never hurts to keep your stuff protected by encrypting your smartphone.

Here we’re going to take a look at how to secure and encrypt Android or iOS devices to ensure that data is protected.

Things you should consider before enabling encryption

Now most of new Android devices ships with encryption already turned on by default. If this is the case for your phone, there is no way to disable encryption. But if you’re using a device that doesn’t have encryption enabled out of the box, there are some things to consider before enabling it :

  • Slower Performance: Once a device is encrypted, the data has to be decrypted on-the-fly every time you access it. Therefore, you may see a bit of a performance drop once it’s enabled, though it’s generally not noticeable for most users (especially if you have a powerful phone).
  • Encryption is one-way: If you enable encryption yourself, the only way to undo the process is by factory resetting the device and starting over from scratch. So make sure you’re sure before you start the process.
  • If you’re rooted, you’ll need to temporarily unroot: If you try to encrypt a rooted phone, you’ll run into problems. You can encrypt your rooted phone, but you’ll have to unroot it first, go through the encryption process, then re-root afteward.

How to encrypt Android devices

Google introduced full-device encryption back in Android Gingerbread (2.3.x), but it has undergone some dramatic changes since then. On some higher-end handsets running Lollipop (5.x) and higher, it’s enabled out-of-the-box, while on some older or lower-end devices, you have to turn it on yourself.

Android uses dm-crypt encryption function, which is the standard disk encryption system in the Linux kernel. It’s the same technology used by a variety of Linux distributions.

Encrypting the device can take an hour or longer. Your device’s battery must be at least 80% charged. Android won’t even start the process otherwise. Your device must be plugged in throughout the entire process. Again, if you’re rooted, be sure to unroot your phone before continuing. And one more thing if you interfere with the process or end it before it’s finished, you will likely lose all your data. Once the process is started, it’s best to just leave the device alone and let it do its thing.

So learn how to encrypt Android devices :

First go to “Settings“.

Now tap on “Security“. If your phone is already encrypted it will display it here.

If the device isn’t encrypted, you can start the process by tapping the “Encrypt phone” option.

In the next screen you will see a warning to let you know what to expect once the process is finished. If you’re ready to proceed, hit the “Encrypt phone” button.

Again one more warning will popup, which tells you not to interrupt the process. If you’re still not scared away, one more tap of the “Encrypt phone” button to stat the process.

Now your phone will reboot and start the encryption process. A progress bar and estimated time till completion will show up.

Once it’s finished, the phone will reboot and you’re back in business. If you set up a lock screen password, PIN, or pattern, you’ll have to put it in now so the device will finish the boot process.

If you haven’t set up a PIN or password, now is a good time to do so. Head into your device’s “Settings > Security” menu. From there, select the “Screen Lock” option.

To confirm if encryption is enabled head to “Settings > Security” and you can see confirmation “Encrypted” under “Encrypt phone” option.

So that’s it, all your personal stuff in your Android device is safe. Usually encryption will only applied to the data stored in your phone memory. Still the hacker can access your SD card by inserting it to other phone or by card reader.

Don’t panic, luckily you also can encrypt your SD card to keep data safe and prevent the card from being used in another device (unless wiped first).

For that Head to “Settings“, select “Security“, followed by “Encrypt external SD card” and click “Enable“.

Unlike device encryption, which required you wipe the phone to remove it, SD card encryption can easily be reversed in the Settings menu.

How to encrypt iOS devices

After Android encryption now its time to learn how to encrypt iOS devices. Apple introduced device encryption with iOS 8 back in 2014.

Enabling encryption on Apple’s iPhone and iPad devices is actually relatively simple. All it takes is a security code or fingerprint to enable it. While a basic four-digit passcode will do, for better protection I recommend using a longer numerical passcode or a password.

First head to “Settings”

Select “Touch ID & Passcode” (or “Passcode” for older devices without a fingerprint sensor)

Click on the “Turn Passcode On” option and enter in a passcode of your choice. A longer alphanumeric passcode is recommended but a six-digit PIN code will do as well. Avoid four-digit PINs as your passcode. You can change this from Passcode Options in “Set Passcode” screen.

Additionally, you can also opt to utilize Touch ID for biometric authentication if your device comes equipped with Apple’s Touch ID sensor.

Now to confirm if encryption is enabled or not, head to “Settings > Touch ID & Passcode” and then scroll to the bottom of the screen. Here you should see “Data protection is enabled

If you are stuck in the middle of the process or any doubt regarding how to encrypt Android or iOS devices feel free to comment below.

A-Z Bash Command Line for Linux — Also Included Bash Commands PDF

A-Z Bash Command Line for Linux
A-Z Bash Command Line for Linux

Bash or Bourne Again SHell is a Unix shell or main command-line interface and the command language was written by Brian Fox released in 1989. Bash command line typically runs in a text window, where the user types commands that cause actions. Bash can also read commands from a file, called a script. It has been distributed widely as the shell for the GNU operating system and as a default shell on Linux and OS X.

Also recently Microsoft announced during the 2016 Build Conference that Windows 10 has added a Linux subsystem that fully supports Bash and other Ubuntu binaries running natively in Windows.

Features of Bash

Like the other GNU projects, the bash initiative was started to preserve, protect and promote the freedom to use, study, copy, modify and redistribute software. It is generally known that such conditions stimulate creativity. This was also the case with the bash program, which has a lot of extra features that other shells can’t offer.

Bash command provides the following features:

  • Input/output redirection
  • Wildcard characters (metacharacters) for filename abbreviation
  • Shell variables for customizing your environment
  • Powerful programming capabilities
  • Command-line editing (using vi- or Emacs-style editing commands)
  • Access to previous commands (command history)
  • Integer arithmetic
  • Arithmetic expressions
  • Command name abbreviation (aliasing)
  • Job control
  • Integrated programming features
  • Control structures
  • Directory stacking (using pushd and popd)
  • Brace/tilde expansion
  • Key bindings

In this article we are going to list A-Z Bash command line for Linux (and also included bas command PDF file) or we can say list of Linux commands. I think the below bash command line table will be helpful in your Linux journey.

A-Z Bash Command Line


Bash Command Line Function
 alias  Create an alias
 apropos  Search Help manual pages (man -k)
 apt-get  Search for and install software packages (Debian/Ubuntu)
 aptitude  Search for and install software packages (Debian/Ubuntu)
 aspell  Spell Checker
 awk  Find and Replace text, database sort/validate/index
 basename  Strip directory and suffix from filenames
 bash  GNU Bourne-Again SHell
 bc  Arbitrary precision calculator language
 bg  Send to background
 break  Exit from a loop
 builtin  Run a shell builtin
 bzip2  Compress or decompress named file(s)
 cal  Display a calendar
 case  Conditionally perform a command
 cat  Concatenate and print (display) the content of files
 cd  Change Directory
 cfdisk  Partition table manipulator for Linux
 chgrp  Change group ownership
 chmod  Change access permissions
 chown  Change file owner and group
 chroot  Run a command with a different root directory
 chkconfig  System services (runlevel)
 cksum  Print CRC checksum and byte counts
 clear  Clear terminal screen
 cmp  Compare two files
 comm  Compare two sorted files line by line
 command  Run a command – ignoring shell functions
 continue  Resume the next iteration of a loop
 cp  Copy one or more files to another location
 cron  Daemon to execute scheduled commands
 crontab  Schedule a command to run at a later time
 csplit  Split a file into context-determined pieces
 curl  Transfer data from or to a server
 cut  Divide a file into several parts
 date  Display or change the date & time
 dc  Desk Calculator
 dd  Convert and copy a file, write disk headers, boot records
 ddrescue  Data recovery tool
 declare  Declare variables and give them attributes
 df  Display free disk space
 diff  Display the differences between two files
 diff3  Show differences among three files
 dig  DNS lookup
 dir  Briefly list directory contents
 dircolors  Colour setup for `ls’
 dirname  Convert a full pathname to just a path
 dirs  Display list of remembered directories
 dmesg  Print kernel & driver messages
 du  Estimate file space usage
 echo  Display message on screen
 egrep  Search file(s) for lines that match an extended expression
 eject  Eject removable media
 enable  Enable and disable builtin shell commands
 env  Environment variables
 ethtool  Ethernet card settings
 eval  Evaluate several commands/arguments
 exec  Execute a command
 exit  Exit the shell
 expect  Automate arbitrary applications accessed over a terminal
 expand  Convert tabs to spaces
 export  Set an environment variable
 expr  Evaluate expressions
 false  Do nothing, unsuccessfully
 fdformat  Low-level format a floppy disk
 fdisk  Partition table manipulator for Linux
 fg  Send job to foreground
 fgrep  Search file(s) for lines that match a fixed string
 file  Determine file type
 find  Search for files that meet a desired criteria
 fmt  Reformat paragraph text
 fold  Wrap text to fit a specified width
 for  Expand words, and execute commands
 format  Format disks or tapes
 free  Display memory usage
 fsck  File system consistency check and repair
 ftp  File Transfer Protocol
 function  Define Function Macros
 fuser  Identify/kill the process that is accessing a file
 gawk  Find and Replace text within file(s)
 getopts  Parse positional parameters
 grep  Search file(s) for lines that match a given pattern
 groupadd  Add a user security group
 groupdel  Delete a group
 groupmod  Modify a group
 groups  Print group names a user is in
 gzip  Compress or decompress named file(s)
 hash  Remember the full pathname of a name argument
 head  Output the first part of file(s)
 help  Display help for a built-in command
 history  Command History
 hostname  Print or set system name
 htop  Interactive process viewer
 iconv  Convert the character set of a file
 id  Print user and group id’s
 if  Conditionally perform a command
 ifconfig  Configure a network interface
 ifdown  Stop a network interface
 ifup  Start a network interface up
 import  Capture an X server screen and save the image to file
install  Copy files and set attributes
 ip  Routing, devices and tunnels
 jobs  List active jobs
 join  Join lines on a common field
 kill  Kill a process by specifying its PID
 killall  Kill processes by name
 less  Display output one screen at a time
 let  Perform arithmetic on shell variables
 link  Create a link to a file
 ln  Create a symbolic link to a file
 local  Create variables
 locate  Find files
 logname  Print current login name
 logout  Exit a login shell
 look  Display lines beginning with a given string
 lpc  Line printer control program
 lpr  Off line print
 lprint  Print a file
 lprintd  Abort a print job
 lprintq  List the print queue
 lprm  Remove jobs from the print queue
 ls  List information about file(s)
 lsof  List open files
 make Recompile a group of programs
 man Help manual
 mkdir Create new folder(s)
 mkfifo Make FIFOs (named pipes)
 mkisofs Create an hybrid ISO9660/JOLIET/HFS filesystem
 mknod Make block or character special files
 more Display output one screen at a time
 most Browse or page through a text file
 mount Mount a file system
 mtools Manipulate MS-DOS files
 mtr Network diagnostics (traceroute/ping)
 mv Move or rename files or directories
 mmv Mass Move and rename (files)
 nc Netcat, read and write data across networks
 netstat Networking information
 nice Set the priority of a command or job
 nl Number lines and write files
 nohup Run a command immune to hangups
 notify-send Send desktop notifications
 nslookup Query Internet name servers interactively
 open Open a file in its default application
 op Operator access
passwd Modify a user password
paste Merge lines of files
pathchk Check file name portability
ping Test a network connection
pkill Kill processes by a full or partial name
popd Restore the previous value of the current directory
pr Prepare files for printing
printcap Printer capability database
printenv Print environment variables
printf Format and print data
ps Process status
pushd Save and then change the current director
pv Monitor the progress of data through a pipe
pwd Print Working Directory
quota Display disk usage and limits
quotacheck Scan a file system for disk usag
ram ram disk device
rar Archive files with compression
rcp Copy files between two machines
read Read a line from standard input
readarray Read from stdin into an array variable
readonly Mark variables/functions as readonly
reboot Reboot the system
rename Rename files
renice Alter priority of running processes
return Exit a shell function
rev Reverse lines of a file
rm Remove files
rmdir Remove folder(s)
rsync Remote file copy (Synchronize file trees)
screen Multiplex terminal, run remote shells via ssh
scp Secure copy (remote file copy)
sdiff Merge two files interactively
sed Stream Editor
select Accept keyboard input
seq Print numeric sequences
set Manipulate shell variables and functions
sftp Secure File Transfer Program
shift Shift positional parameters
shopt Shell Options
shutdown Shutdown or restart linux
sleep Delay for a specified time
slocate Find files
sort Sort text files
source Run commands from a file ‘.’
split Split a file into fixed-size pieces
ssh Secure Shell client (remote login program)
stat Display file or file system status
strace Trace system calls and signals
su Substitute user identity
sudo Execute a command as another user
sum Print a checksum for a file
suspend Suspend execution of this shell
sync Synchronize data on disk with memory
tail Output the last part of file
tar Store, list or extract files in an archive
tee Redirect output to multiple files
test Evaluate a conditional expression
time Measure Program running time
timeout Run a command with a time limit
times User and system times
touch Change file timestamps
top List processes running on the system
tput Set terminal-dependent capabilities, color, position
traceroute Trace Route to Host
trap Run a command when a signal is set(bourne)
tr Translate, squeeze, and/or delete characters
true Do nothing, successfully
tsort Topological sort
tty Print filename of terminal on stdin
type Describe a command
ulimit Limit user resources
umask Users file creation mask
umount Unmount a device
unalias Remove an alias
uname Print system information
unexpand Convert spaces to tabs
uniq Uniquify files
units Convert units from one scale to another
unrar Extract files from a rar archive
unset Remove variable or function names
unshar Unpack shell archive scripts
until Execute commands (until error)
uptime Show uptime
useradd Create new user account
userdel Delete a user account
usermod Modify user account
users List users currently logged in
uuencode Encode a binary file
uudecode Decode a file created by uuencode
v Verbosely list directory contents (`ls -l -b’)
vdir Verbosely list directory contents (`ls -l -b’)
vi Text Editor
vmstat Report virtual memory statistics
wait Wait for a process to complete
watch Execute/display a program periodically
wc Print byte, word, and line counts
whereis Search the user’s $path, man pages and source files for a program
which Search the user’s $path for a program file
while Execute commands
who Print all usernames currently logged in
whoami Print the current user id and name (`id -un’)
wget Retrieve web pages or files via HTTP, HTTPS or FTP
write Send a message to another user
xargs Execute utility, passing constructed argument list(s)
xdg-open Open a file or URL in the user’s preferred application
xz Compress or decompress .xz and .lzma files
yes Print a string until interrupted
zip Package and compress (archive) files
Special Characters
. Run a command script in the current shell
!! Run the last command again
### Comment / Remark


Now you know almost all bash command lines and for future reference we also included a bash command PDF for you.

List of Bash Commands PDF

Also check out other command lists too:

How to protect yourself from being hacked with e-cig Is that even possible?

protect yourself from being hacked with e-cig

People who charge electronic cigarettes charged via the USB port can help hackers to get into your PC quickly. They can put an additional microcircuit in such a device, that will make computer to recognize cigarettes as the keyboard. So it will make the OS perform input commands. The only disadvantage is that code should not be very big. Otherwise, it will not fit into a limited space of e-cig.

How does this work?

The opportunity of hacking computers with electronic cigarette (check that) was reported by the researcher in the field of cybersecurity Ross Bevington at the BSides London 2017. The expert demonstrated the process of hacking during his report. According to the researcher, his tactics are effective for open systems. However, it is possible to perform such an attack through a cigarette, which will work on protected PCs.

According to Bevington, an e-cig vaporizer cannot accommodate a very volumetric code. The well-known program WannaCry, for example, is hundreds of times larger than the built-in memory of a cigarette. However, the researcher says, the accessory can be modified in such a way to download a larger file from the Internet, although he did not conduct such an experiment.

More cases of hacking with e-cig

The user of the Internet FourOctets confirmed the invention of the Bevington. He posted a video in the social network Twitter, which demonstrates the mechanism of such an attack. On the video, the user connects an e vapor to the laptop, after which the computer starts to execute third-party codes. Random phrases begin to appear on the screen, and malicious software starts to download to the PC’s memory.

As explained by FourOctets, he used the same tactics as Bevington. He forced the computer to recognize the cigarette as a keyboard or mouse. To download and execute a malicious file on the PC, you had to write a script consisting of less than 20 lines.

In 2014, a Reddit user named Jrockilla told about a real case of hacking a corporate computer using an electronic cigar. There was a malicious software in the machine of an associate. The IT department of the company tried to understand for a very long time the source of it. Running through various options, IT specialists finally asked the manager if he uses any electronic devices. He replied that two weeks ago he switched from conventional cigarettes to electronic cigarettes. Then IT staff disassembled it into details. It was the device of an unknown Chinese brand, bought on eBay for $ 5. Testing showed that after connecting to a USB port, the cigarette sends a signal to its “home” system and infects the computer.

How to protect my device?

If you do not want to be a victim of cyber attacks on your computer, do not neglect the safety rules. Even if at first sight the electronic cigarette does not look like a threat, it may influence the whole company system just by using a computer to charge your device.

If you run a business you should invest in some monitoring solution that can alert your security team when something like this attack occurs,” Bevington said.

So, believe or not, but maybe your vaping device also contains a chip which can break your computers.

Neglecting of own security on the Internet leads to massive hacking and infection of devices. Most hackers aim at obtaining commercial benefits. If the user’s computer does not have valuable information about bank cards or state secrets, it won’t be so interesting for a hacker. But still, it is better to be reinsured.

Necessary steps to protect your computer

1. Do not charge your e-cigarette with computer

The owners of unique e-cigs often connect them to the computer, not to the charger in the outlet. As you have read before, installing an additional microcircuit in the cigarette can convince the PC that it is a keyboard. Thanks to this OS will execute all the commands that come from the connected device.

The solution: Just use the outlet to charge your device.

2. Do not create easy passwords

According to the company Keeper, which produces software for storing passwords), the passwords “123456”, “123456789”, “qwerty”, “12345678” and “111111” became the most common among people who were hacked in 2016. Keeper picked up the 25 most common passwords and stated that more than 50 percent of people use them.

So, to hack someone’s mailbox, Internet banking system or cloud storage, it is enough to substitute one of the passwords listed by the resource. To do this, there are already programs, which are used to enumerate digits and select a five-digit password in a few seconds.

The solution: The password must consist of at least 10 characters, letters, numbers, punctuation. It also should have a different case (upper and lower). The characters of such a password should not be put into persistent expressions (even if transliteration). Also, you can not use one password for different services or use “secret questions” – the nickname of your first dog, your mother’s maiden name. Remembering several such passwords is difficult, but it worth it!

3. Double authentication

To protect yourself from hacking, making the right password is not enough. That is why most services now use two-factor authentication (2FA). With this method, the system recognizes the user in two ways. Typically, this is something that the user knows (for example, a password or a pin code). The second sign can be a thing that belongs to the user – a smartphone. It receives SMS-notification with a new password, or push-notification, on which you need to confirm the input. And the third factor is user biometrics. This is a fingerprint or face scan.

The solution: It is not safe to use only one method. Even a fingerprint can be “removed” from the screen of the smartphone or someone can steal it and use the code to pass the input.

4. Avoid extraneous links

If the user sees new mail, he will most likely open it. There could be a link which he follows and gets on the start page of the social network or the mail service. The user enters his password, and nothing happens. Considering that he was “thrown out” from the system, he can re-enter his login and password. However, the “start page” is just a forgery, and the user’s data fall into the hands of hackers. It was this story that happened to one of the members of the US Democratic Party. As a result of the following a third-party link, he filled out the forms of the mailbox, and the attackers got access to the mail of the members of Hillary Clinton’s party.

The solution: If you find such emails, they should be immediately marked as spam and not open at all.

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